In a fan-translated post on the official ArcheAge forums, it has been revealed that the game will utilized a death penalty in the form of building materials being dropped on death or log out. Basically, the interview states that these materials are carried on a player's back forcing them to walk, not run making them easy pickings.
To quote the translation directly:
The largest change is that the materials are carried, instead of being stored in inventory, to build the house. By doing so causes the need for sea trading and riding on the boat. The tree cut by the user goes into the inventory, but when refined in order to build a house it becomes a package. This does not go into the inventory and is carried on the back.
When a package is on the back, they cannot run so must travel in walking speed. When they ride on the horse, they can move a bit faster but the horse too will be walking. Boats and carriages do not have speed limit.
The special property of these packages is that when logged out or killed, it drops to the ground. So as it is not in the inventory there is a threat that its ownership may change anytime.
Read the full translated post and participate in the conversation on the ArcheAge forum.